General surgery refers to the surgical subspecialty that involves treatment of any injury, deformity or disease with operative procedures. Surgery is considered as an option when non-surgical treatments can no longer alleviate your pain. The most common general surgical procedures include:
Appendectomy is the surgical removal of appendix, a small finger-shaped organ attached to the caecum (first part of the colon). Appendectomy is indicated in appendicitis, the inflammation of appendix and can be performed laparoscopically.
Laparoscopic surgery uses several smaller incisions and special surgical tools fed through the incisions to remove the appendix. This results in less post-operative pain, faster recovery with fewer complications.
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder and is the most effective way to treat gallstones or other gallbladder diseases. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a less invasive surgical method that uses a device called a laparoscope. The laparoscope is a small, thin tube with a light and tiny video camera (connected to a television monitor) attached at the end, which helps visualize inside the abdomen during the operation.
Following laparoscopic surgery, you can go home on the same day or the next day after recovering from the effects of anaesthesia. You can return to normal activities within 24 hours and resume work in a week.
Nissen fundoplication surgery is a procedure to treat reflux disease. It is a procedure in which the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the end of your oesophagus and oesophageal sphincter, where it is sutured into place. This surgery strengthens the sphincter and helps prevent stomach acid and food from flowing back into oesophagus.
Laparoscopic method is much less traumatic to the muscles and soft tissues than the traditional method of surgically opening the abdomen with long incisions (open techniques).
A hernia is a bulge formed by a part of an organ (usually the intestine or stomach) when it pushes against a weak spot in the muscle wall that encloses it. It occurs when straining exerts pressure on the weak region such as while lifting heavy objects, having a bowel movement, chronic cough or being obese. Other causes may include an enlarged prostate, poor nutrition, a previous surgical incision or when the muscles around the navel do not close at birth.
Surgery is the treatment of choice for hernias. Hernia repair is performed both as open surgery and laparoscopically (keyhole). With either approach, your doctor pushes the bulge back into place and may stitch together the weak muscles or tissues. Sometimes, a piece of synthetic mesh is sutured to reinforce the weak region. The incision(s) are closed with stitches or staples.
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is a procedure performed to diagnose and in some cases to treat problems of the upper digestive system. The endoscope is a long, thin, flexible tube with a tiny video camera and light on the end. Upper GI Endoscopy is recommended in conditions such as acute GI bleeding, chronic anaemia, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).
Colonoscopy is the procedure of inserting a colonoscope (a flexible tube with a small camera and lens attached) to view, diagnose and treat conditions of the large intestine (colon and rectum). The procedure can detect inflamed tissue, ulcers, and abnormal growths. It is used to diagnose early signs of colorectal cancer, bowel disorders, abdominal pain, muscle spasms, inflamed tissue, ulcers, anal bleeding, and non-dietary weight loss. The colonoscope is inserted into the rectum which gently moves up through the colon until it reaches the caecum (junction of small and large intestine). It is then withdrawn very slowly as the camera shows pictures of the colon and rectum onto a large screen. Polyps or growths can also be removed by colonoscopy which can be used for diagnosing cancer.
It is the surgical removal of a polyp. Polyps are non-cancerous abnormal growth of the tissue along the lining of gastrointestinal wall. Gastrointestinal polyps can be removed endoscopically through colonoscopy or surgically if the polyp is too large. During colonoscopy, the polyps are identified and cut using forceps. Larger polyps are removed by passing a wire snare, tightening the snare around the polyp base and then burning with electric cautery.